Reboot or Shutdown a Solaris System

The best and safest command to do a clean shutdown or a reboot of a Solaris server is the 2 commands below. There are many commands with which you can achieve this. But if you have many scripts in init.d for application like Oracle DBand Oracle RAC. Then shutdown command is the way to go, also it prompts the users to save and shutdown their sessions.

To Reboot

shutdown -y -i6 -g0

To shutdown

shutdown -y -i5 -g0

Create Virtual Interface Solaris 10

Ocassionally you need to create a quick one node RAC setup for testing and one of the requirements is a private virtual interface. Virtual interfaces allow a single ethernet interface to listen on additional IP addresses. You can quickly do it in Solaris 10 so that the grid infrastructure setup can see the private virtual interconnect. You can do as below

After adding entry for private interconnect in etc/hosts file you can proceed.

Given an ethernet interface bge0 (use ifconfig -a to identify the names of your interfaces), you can create a subinterface called bge0:1 with the following command:

— Configure Virtual Interface Solaris 10–

Virtual interfaces allow a single ethernet interface to listen on additional IP addresses.

Given an ethernet interface bge0 (use ifconfig -a to identify the names of your interfaces), you can create a subinterface called bge0:1 with the following command:

# dladm show-dev
bge0 link: up speed: 1000 Mbps duplex: full
bge1 link: unknown speed: 0 Mbps duplex: unknown
bge2 link: unknown speed: 0 Mbps duplex: unknown
bge3 link: unknown speed: 0 Mbps duplex: unknown

# dladm show-link
bge0 type: non-vlan mtu: 1500 device: bge0
bge1 type: non-vlan mtu: 1500 device: bge1
bge2 type: non-vlan mtu: 1500 device: bge2
bge3 type: non-vlan mtu: 1500 device: bge3

ifconfig bge0:1 plumb

You can set the IP address of the interface to and turn on the interface with the following command:

ifconfig bge0:1 up

ifconfig -a

lo0: flags=2001000849 mtu 8232 index 1
inet netmask ff000000
bge0: flags=1000843 mtu 1500 index 2
inet 172.*.*.* netmask ffffff00 broadcast 172.*.*.*
ether 0:14:4f:95:e1:38

Unless you do some additional nonstandard things in your network, all of the subinterfaces on a physical interface need to be in the same subnet.

To make the virtual interface persist following a reboot, you can add the ip address or hostame from /etc/hosts in the file /etc/hostname.bge0:1

more /etc/hosts

# Internet host table
::1 localhost hostname-priv

vi /etc/hostname.bge0:1

Add the entry hostname-priv from the host file to the virtual interface suncsftst-priv. And now it will persis after a reboot also.

Monitor User Processes and Send Email Shell Script Solaris10

Sometimes on a system it is important to know the maximum user processes does not increase so much that it consumes all shared memory. Recently we had an incident in our ORganization where a rogue application bug caused user processes to spike upto 20,000 and it consumed all memory and swap and the entire server crashed.  If we pro-actively monitored the system for increasing user processes we could have averted this disaster. Below is script to monitor user processes and send email.

swx – is name process name

500- threshold for permitted processes

VAL=`ps -ef | grep -c swx | awk ‘{if ( $1 > 500 ) print $1 }’`

if [ “$VAL” -ge “500” ]; then
echo “$VAL user processes found running with SWX user. Exceeded the Threshold,
Please take immediate action.” | /usr/bin/mailx -s “Alert !! $VAL SWX Applicati
on processes”

exit 0

You can add this to crontab like below:

* * * * * /u02/scripts/ >/dev/null 2>&1

Failover Solaris Zone Cluster

root@swxapp1 # clrg status

=== Cluster Resource Groups ===

Group Name     Node Name           Suspended    Status
———-     ———           ———    ——
swxapp-rg      swxnode1:swxapp1    No           Online
swxnode2:swxapp2    No           Offline

root@swxapp1 # clrg switch -n swxnode2:swxapp2 swxapp-rg

Configuring DNS on Solaris 10 (Joining Solaris10 server to Domain)

################ Configure Solaris 10 machine to be on DNS##############

1. Check for file resolv.conf in /etc directory, if it doenst exist create it

2. add below information to the resolv.conf file


3. Check for file nsswitch.conf in /etc directory

hosts:      files
ipnodes:    files

## edit the above 2 lines and add ‘dns’ in front of file

hosts:      files dns
ipnodes:    files dns

save and exit

$ nslookup swxscan




Avoid out of memory error on Solaris 10 for Oracle Database

Out of Memory Problems on Oracle 10 / Solaris 10

Many kernel parameters have been replaced by so called resource controls in Solaris 10. It is possible to change resource controls using the prctl command. All shared memory and semaphore settings are now handled via resource controls, so any entries regarding shared memory or semaphores (shm & sem) in /etc/system will be ignored.

Here is the procedure we followed to modify the kernel parameters on Solaris 10 / Oracle

Unlike earlier releases of Solaris, most of the system parameters needed to run Oracle are already set properly, so the only one you need is the maximum shared memory parameter. In earlier versions this was called SHMMAX and was set by editing the /etc/system file and rebooting. With Solaris 10 you set this by modifying a «Resource Control Value». You can do this temporarily by using prctl, but that is lost at reboot so you will need to add the command to the oracle user’s .profile.

The other option is to create a default project for the oracle user.

# projadd -U oracle -K \

What this does:

Makes a project named “” in /etc/project with the user oracle as it’s only member.

# cat /etc/project


Because the name was of the form “user.username” it becomes the oracle user’s default project.

The value of the maximum shared memory is set to 4GB, you might want to use a larger value here if you have more memory and swap.

No reboot is needed, the user will get the new value
at their next login.

Now you can also modify the max-sem-ids Parameter:

# projmod -s -K “project.max-sem-ids=(priv,256,deny)” \

Check the Paramters as User oracle

$ prctl -i project

project: 100:
privileged 10.0K – deny –
system 2.15G max deny –
privileged 125MB – deny –
system 16.0EB max deny –
privileged 8.19K – deny –
system 65.5K max deny –
privileged 4.00GB – deny –
system 16.0EB max deny –
privileged 128 – deny –
system 16.8M max deny –
privileged 128 – deny –
system 16.8M max deny –
privileged 256 – deny –
system 16.8M max deny –
privileged 498MB – deny –
system 16.0EB max deny –
system 2.15G max deny –
system 2.15G max deny –
privileged 1 – none –
system 65.5K max none –
system 2.15G max deny –
privileged 1 – none –

Oracle Database 11g installation on Solaris 10

I had installed Oracle Database 11g on Solaris 10 few days back. I thought of documenting the steps for easy reference. Please find below steps for the same

Installation Pre-Requisite

Refer to Oracle Database Installation Guide 11g Release 1 (11.1) for Solaris Operating System for checking Hardware and Software Requirements.

User Creation and Environment Settings

1)Create groups for Oracle account

#groupadd oinstall
#groupadd dba
#groupadd oper

2)Create Oracle Default Home directory

# mkdir /export/home
# mkdir /export/home/oracle

3)Create Oracle user

# useradd -g oinstall -G dba -d /export/home/oracle -s /usr/bin/bash oracle
# chown oracle:oinstall /export/home/oracle

4)Create Project for Oracle for setting the kernel parameters

In case of Solaris 10, you can use projects to configure the kernel parameters instead of /etc/system file. This can be done as following

# projadd -U oracle -K "project.max-shm-memory=(priv,4g,deny)" oracle
# projmod -sK "project.max-sem-nsems=(priv,256,deny)" oracle
# projmod -sK "project.max-sem-ids=(priv,100,deny)" oracle
# projmod -sK "project.max-shm-ids=(priv,100,deny)" oracle

There are many more ways of creating project entries such as or user.user-name. For more details refer to Solaris Administration documents.


Last three settings made by projmod command are not required as these values are lower than the default. This was pointed by Mike Madland and he also gave a Sun documentation link
You can check the values for max-sem-ids and max-shm-ids with this command:

prctl -n project.max-sem-ids -i task `ps -o taskid= -p $$`

5)Create .bash_profile for Oracle user

#Oracle Environment Settings
TMP=/tmp; export TMP
ORACLE_BASE=/u03/app/oracle; export ORACLE_BASE
ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_BASE/product/11.1.0/db_1; export ORACLE_HOME

Now Set the Display to a X-windowing enabled system.

$ export DISPLAY=

Also allow the host to accept the connection by

$xhost +

Oracle Software Installation

Go to the Oracle dump location and run runInstaller as Oracle user


This will open Oracle Universal Installer(OUI) screen. If Oracle Universal Installer is not displayed, then ensure DISPLAY variable is set correctly. Select “Software only” option and install the software. If any of the pre-requisite’s are not met , then installation will fail. You would be required to make necessary changes to proceed.

Database Creation

We will be using ASM for the Database files. For this we need to perform some configuration

1)Prepare the Raw device for using as ASM Disks

# ls -l
total 0
crw------- 1 root root 125, 1 Jun 20 10:39 1

Disk should be owned by Oracle user and should have permission set to 660

# chown oracle:dba 1
# chmod 660 1

- # ls -ltr
total 0
crw-rw---- 1 oracle dba 125, 1 Jun 20 10:39 1

2)Configure CSS Service

In case of Solaris 10, we need to use Service Management Facility (SMF) for configuring CSS service else it will not start. Refer to my earlier post for this step i.e ASM installation on Solaris fails -II

3) Configure ASM Instance

a)Go to $ORACLE_HOME/bin

b)Execute dbca from this directory (ensure dbca is properly set)


c) Select Configure ASM Instance option. This will create ASM instance for you. After this you can create Diskgroups using GUI or else use sqlplus to do the same.

4)Now continue creating database normally and enter Diskgroup Name after selecting Oracle Managed files as database file location.

While you navigate through GUI screens, it will prompt you to Specifying Security Settings

– Keep the enhanced 11g security settings(recommended)
– Revert to pre 11g settings

Select the 11g settings which will enable Auditing by default and also enable Case sensitive passwords with Stronger password hashing algorithm.

I have not discussed GUI screens for DBCA and OUI in this article. These are pretty much standard screens. In case you need more information about it, then you can refer to : Oracle 11g Install guide for Solaris