Rebuild All Indexes on a Schema in Oracle

spool index_rebuild.sql

select ‘alter index ‘||owner||’.’||index_name ||’ rebuild online nologging;’
from dba_indexes
where owner=upper(‘SAMPLE’);
spool off

First Day and Last Day of Current Month Oracle

Query to Select the First Day and Last Day of the Current Month

 

select trim(to_date(last_day(sysdate),’DD/MM/YYYY’)) as lastday from dual;

select trunc((sysdate),’month’) as FirstDay from dual;

Move Table to Another Tablespace Online Oracle Database 12c

The new PL/SQL procedure REDEF_TABLE in Oracle 12c  lets you redefine a table online in a single step. It can do the below changes

  • Move table,partition or index to another tablespace
  • Compression type change on a table including for table,partition and index

More information on DBMS_REDFINITION can be accessed on Oracle Support : Master Note:Overview of Online Redefinition of Tables (DBMS_REDEFINITION) (Doc ID 1357825.1)

We will now go ahead and move the table HR.EMP to another tablespace called TBS01 online.

EXEC
BEGIN
DBMS_REDEFINITION.REDEF_TABLE(
uname => ‘HR’,
tname => ‘EMP’,
table_part_tablespace => ‘TBS01’
);
END;
/

uname –> Schema Name in which Table resides
tname –> Table Name
table_part_tablespace –> New Tablespace to which table will be moved
index_tablespace => If you need to move the indexes to another table it can be done using an additional arguement

Restore Table from RMAN Backup Oracle 12c

 

One of the amazing features of Oracle Database 12c is that now you can do a logical restore from a physical backup. Before 12c it was not possible to restore a table from a RMAN backup. This feature is amazing speciall when you have a large database and needs to restore a small table. One of the pre-requisites is you must have a Full Backup of the database and also archivelogs after the fully backup must be available. We can proceed to do the restore with below RMAN command

$ rman target /

RECOVER TABLE HR.EMP
UNTIL TIME ‘SYSDATE-0.22’
AUXILIARY DESTINATION ‘/backups/rmanbkp’
REMAP TABLE ‘HR’.’EMP’:’EMP_RECVR’

HR.EMP is the table to be recovered from the RMAN backup

SYSDATE-0.22 is the time till where the table will be rolled back; this is to specify the point in time for recovery: UNTIL TIME, UNTIL SCN, or UNTIL SEQUENCE can be used

Auxiliary Destination is destination where a instance is created for the recovery process

REMAP TABLE clause is used to specify to restore the table with another name

Using this method even individual table paritions can be restored.

EXPDP/IMPDP – ORA-04063 (view “SYS.KU$_RADM_FPTM_VIEW” Has Errors) on Full Export / Import

This is caused by a mismatch between the character set in which the table radm_fptm$ is created and in which the type ku$_radm_fptm$_t is created. This leads to the ORA-932 error when trying to recompile the view SYS.KU$_RADM_FPTM_VIEW, you have specified UTF8 for the national characaterset instead of the default AL16UTF16 national characaterset:

To Check Character set

col parameter for a35
col value for a40
select * from nls_database_parameters where parameter like ‘%SET’ order by 1;

 

Workaround is  to recompile the Recompile the View ku$_radm_fptm_t

alter type ku$_radm_fptm_t compile reuse settings;

Type altered.

SQL> alter view SYS.KU$_RADM_FPTM_VIEW compile;

View altered.

set lines 140
col status for a9
col object_type for a20;
col owner.object for a50
select con_id, status, object_id, object_type,
owner||’.’||object_name “OWNER.OBJECT”
3 from cdb_objects where object_name like ‘%KU$_RADM_FPTM_VIEW%’ order by 4,1;

 

CON_ID STATUS OBJECT_ID OBJECT_TYPE OWNER.OBJECT
———- ——— ———- ——————– ————————————————–
0 VALID 14188 VIEW SYS.KU$_RADM_FPTM_VIEW

 

 

 

Oracle 12c Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) on RAC Database with Physical Standby Database : Multiple Databases in Single Oracle Home

Oracle 12c TDE on RAC Database with Physical Standby RAC. The Oracle Database Home has Multiple Instances, due to which we have to use parameter $ORACLE_UNQNAME for ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION in sqlnet.ora file

In Oracle 12c ALTER SYSTEM and orapki has been deprecated and the correct method is to use ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT commands. Many of the statements from the ALTER SYSTEM SQL statement correspond to the ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT statement.

1. Create folder for wallets, since this is RAC cluster database ,it is better to have a shared filesystem. In our case it is ACFS
mkdir -p /ACFS/wallets/primeprd
mkdir -p /ACFS/wallets/onlnprd
chown -R oracle:oinstall /ACFS/wallets/primeprd
chown -R oracle:oinstall /ACFS/wallets/onlnprd
2. Create sqlnet.ora file with encryption wallet location, do on both nodes with oracle user
ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE = (METHOD = FILE) (METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY=/ACFS/wallets/$ORACLE_UNQNAME/)))
3. Set DB Unique Name for the databases and verfiy the encryption wallet location, do on both nodes with oracle user

Also it is better to set the ORACLE_UNQNAME in the user profile

export ORACLE_UNQNAME=`$ORACLE_HOME/bin/srvctl config database |grep -w ${ORACLE_SID%?}`
echo $ORACLE_UNQNAME
srvctl setenv database -d primeprd -T “ORACLE_UNQNAME=primeprd”
select * from v$encryption_wallet;

export ORACLE_UNQNAME=`$ORACLE_HOME/bin/srvctl config database |grep -w ${ORACLE_SID%?}`
echo $ORACLE_UNQNAME
srvctl setenv database -d onlnprd -T “ORACLE_UNQNAME=onlnprd”
select * from v$encryption_wallet;

4. At Dr side, with Oracle user in DB home directory
mkdir -p /ACFS/wallets/primedr
mkdir -p /ACFS/wallets/onlndr
chown -R oracle:oinstall /ACFS/wallets/onlndr
chown -R oracle:oinstall /ACFS/wallets/primedr

Create sqlnet.ora file in DR side with encryption wallet location, do on both nodes with oracle user

ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION =
(SOURCE = (METHOD = FILE) (METHOD_DATA =
(DIRECTORY=/ACFS/wallets/$ORACLE_UNQNAME/)))

export ORACLE_UNQNAME=`$ORACLE_HOME/bin/srvctl config database |grep -w ${ORACLE_SID%?}`
echo $ORACLE_UNQNAME
srvctl setenv database -d onlndr -T “ORACLE_UNQNAME=onlndr”

export ORACLE_UNQNAME=`$ORACLE_HOME/bin/srvctl config database |grep -w ${ORACLE_SID%?}`
echo $ORACLE_UNQNAME
srvctl setenv database -d primedr -T “ORACLE_UNQNAME=primedr”

SQL> select * from v$encryption_wallet;

WRL_TYPE
——————–
WRL_PARAMETER
——————————————————————————–
STATUS WALLET_TYPE WALLET_OR FULLY_BAC
—————————— ——————– ——— ———
CON_ID
———-
FILE
/ACFS/wallet/primeprd/
NOT_AVAILABLE UNKNOWN SINGLE UNDEFINED
0
SQL> administer key management create keystore ‘/ACFS/wallet/primeprd/’ identified by “Abc1234$#”;

keystore altered.

SQL> select * from v$encryption_wallet;

WRL_TYPE
——————–
WRL_PARAMETER
——————————————————————————–
STATUS WALLET_TYPE WALLET_OR FULLY_BAC
—————————— ——————– ——— ———
CON_ID
———-
FILE
/ACFS/wallet/primeprd/
CLOSED UNKNOWN SINGLE UNDEFINED
0
SQL> administer key management set keystore open identified by Abc1234$#;

keystore altered.

SQL> select * from v$encryption_wallet;

WRL_TYPE
——————–
WRL_PARAMETER
——————————————————————————–
STATUS WALLET_TYPE WALLET_OR FULLY_BAC
—————————— ——————– ——— ———
CON_ID
———-
FILE
/ACFS/wallet/primeprd/
OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY PASSWORD SINGLE UNDEFINED
0
SQL> administer key management create key identified by Abc1234$# with backup;

keystore altered.

SQL> select * from v$encryption_wallet;

WRL_TYPE
——————–
WRL_PARAMETER
——————————————————————————–
STATUS WALLET_TYPE WALLET_OR FULLY_BAC
—————————— ——————– ——— ———
CON_ID
———-
FILE
/ACFS/wallet/primeprd/
OPEN_NO_MASTER_KEY PASSWORD SINGLE UNDEFINED
0
SQL> select key_id from v$encryption_keys;

KEY_ID
——————————————————————————
AcVlvDzDNE8iv/rD38jpCtYAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA

SQL> administer key management use key ‘AcVlvDzDNE8iv/rD38jpCtYAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA’ identified by Abc1234$# with backup;

keystore altered.

SQL> select key_id,activation_time from v$encryption_keys;

KEY_ID
——————————————————————————
ACTIVATION_TIME
—————————————————————————
AcVlvDzDNE8iv/rD38jpCtYAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA
23-NOV-16 09.53.46.485930 AM +00:00
SQL> select * from v$encryption_wallet;

WRL_TYPE
——————–
WRL_PARAMETER
——————————————————————————–
STATUS WALLET_TYPE WALLET_OR FULLY_BAC
—————————— ——————– ——— ———
CON_ID
———-
FILE
/ACFS/wallet/primeprd/
OPEN PASSWORD SINGLE NO
0

primeprd1::12c–>srvctl stop database -d primeprd
primeprd1::12c–>srvctl start database -d primeprd
primeprd1::12c–>sqld

SQL> select * from v$encryption_wallet;

WRL_TYPE
——————–
WRL_PARAMETER
——————————————————————————–
STATUS WALLET_TYPE WALLET_OR FULLY_BAC
—————————— ——————– ——— ———
CON_ID
———-
FILE
/ACFS/wallet/primeprd/
CLOSED UNKNOWN SINGLE UNDEFINED
0
SQL> administer key management set keystore open identified by Abc1234$#;

keystore altered.

SQL> select * from v$encryption_wallet;

WRL_TYPE
——————–
WRL_PARAMETER
——————————————————————————–
STATUS WALLET_TYPE WALLET_OR FULLY_BAC
—————————— ——————– ——— ———
CON_ID
———-
FILE
/ACFS/wallet/primeprd/
OPEN PASSWORD SINGLE NO
0
— Create Auto Login for the Keystore —

SQL> ADMINISTER KEY MANAGEMENT CREATE AUTO_LOGIN KEYSTORE FROM KEYSTORE ‘/ACFS/wallet/primeprd/’ identified by Abc1234$#;

keystore altered.

primeprd1::12c–>srvctl stop database -d primeprd
primeprd1::12c–>srvctl start database -d primeprd
primeprd1::12c–>sqld

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Wed Nov 23 13:13:30 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 – 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Real Application Clusters, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP,
Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options

SQL> select * from v$encryption_wallet;

WRL_TYPE
——————–
WRL_PARAMETER
——————————————————————————–
STATUS WALLET_TYPE WALLET_OR FULLY_BAC
—————————— ——————– ——— ———
CON_ID
———-
FILE
/ACFS/wallet/primeprd/
OPEN AUTOLOGIN SINGLE NO
0
Copy the Encryption key Files to Standby Site as “Oracle” user

primeprd2::12c–>cd /ACFS/wallet/primeprd/
primeprd2::12c–>scp -r * oracle@exadrdbadm01:/ACFS/wallets/primedr

The authenticity of host ‘exadrdbadm01 (10.5.238.11)’ can’t be established.
RSA key fingerprint is c8:c0:69:80:1c:c8:ea:e3:6c:46:6b:c1:05:86:aa:c9.
Are you sure you want to continue connecting (yes/no)? yes
Warning: Permanently added ‘exadrdbadm01,10.5.238.11’ (RSA) to the list of known hosts.
oracle@exadrdbadm01’s password:
cwallet.sso 100% 3893 3.8KB/s 00:00
ewallet_2016112309525312.p12 100% 2408 2.4KB/s 00:00
ewallet_2016112309534645.p12 100% 3656 3.6KB/s 00:00
ewallet.p12 100% 3848 3.8KB/s 00:00

— At DR Side on Both Nodes–
SQL> select * from v$encryption_wallet;
WRL_TYPE
——————–
WRL_PARAMETER
—————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————————
STATUS WALLET_TYPE WALLET_OR FULLY_BAC CON_ID
—————————— ——————– ——— ——— ———-
FILE
/u03/app/oracle/admin/primedr/wallet
NOT_AVAILABLE UNKNOWN SINGLE UNDEFINED
/home/oracle::12c–>cd /u03/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/teststandby/network/admin/
/u03/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/teststandby/network/admin::12c–>vi sqlnet.ora
ENCRYPTION_WALLET_LOCATION = (SOURCE = (METHOD = FILE) (METHOD_DATA = (DIRECTORY = /ACFS/wallets/primedr/$ORACLE_UNQNAME/)))

/u03/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/teststandby/network/admin::12c–>sqld

SQL*Plus: Release 12.1.0.2.0 Production on Wed Nov 23 13:27:22 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2014, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Connected to:
Oracle Database 12c Enterprise Edition Release 12.1.0.2.0 – 64bit Production
With the Partitioning, Real Application Clusters, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP,
Advanced Analytics and Real Application Testing options

SQL> select * from v$encryption_wallet;

WRL_TYPE
——————–
WRL_PARAMETER
——————————————————————————–
STATUS WALLET_TYPE WALLET_OR FULLY_BAC
—————————— ——————– ——— ———
CON_ID
———-
FILE
/ACFS/wallets/primedr/
OPEN AUTOLOGIN SINGLE NO
0
SQL> exit

 

5. Create Encrypted Tablespace
CREATE TABLESPACE encrypt_ts
DATAFILE ‘+DATAC1’ SIZE 250M
ENCRYPTION USING ‘AES256’
DEFAULT STORAGE (ENCRYPT);

Send SMS using Shell Script, checking Transaction Count of Table in Oracle

Being a DBA requires us many a times to step outside our role and solve a problem in a smart way. One of the issues we faced recently with one of our application, was the application server hanging and not being able to function properly. The application team did not have any means of getting a quick alert and depending on contact center  to get alerts about the application being down. This required the application server to be monitored round the clock using SMS alerts. Now the application itself wasn’t smart enough to do this. So i did a bit of analysis on the application to figure out a way . Now the Oracle database on Exadata rarely if ever goes down (A very Good DBA team 🙂 ) So to find out the application has a problem, we figured to keep the database as a reference point of availability would be best.

The application writes to a table called authorizations. This being a payment gateway application the transaction count is very high. We receive 24/7 about 10TPS. So in a minute the transaction count will never be below 500-600 anytime . So the first step in creating this script is to create a query to check the transaction count and spool it to file called smscard.txt

select count(*) from authorizations where ltimestamp > sysdate – 5/1440 and I039_RSP_CD=’00’;

SQL>
COUNT(*)
———-
177
This will give us the transaction count in the last 5 minutes

Next We create a logic to check this count with a defined threshold. Using AWK we can remove the garbage information and get the count(*) output

####### AWK BLOCK #########
awk ‘NF=5’ /u03/scripts/smscard.txt > /u03/scripts/trimoutput
pattern=”$(awk ‘NR==5 {print;exit}’ /u03/scripts/trimoutput)”
if [[ “$pattern” -lt 3 ]]
then
sh /u03/scripts/newftptsys.sh
fi

First Line Removes the Extra spaces from the smscard.txt file and writes to file “trimoutput”

Second Prints Line 5 and writes to variable “pattern” from  “trimoutput” file

Third Line checks IF pattern is less than threshold. If condition is true it sends an SMS file to the SMS gateway using FTP. Our SMS gateway requires a text file with mobile numbers to be send to a FTP server.

So there are 3 scripts. A FTP script, a SQL script and the Master script. The Master script calls the SQL script and the FTP script and sends the SMS file based on the IF THEN logic. Below are the 3 scripts

FTP Script : /u03/scripts/newftptsys.sh

#!/bin/bash
USER=abc
PASSWD=abc
FILE=SMSTSYS.TXT
HOST=prodlive
ftp -n $HOST <<END_SCRIPT
quote USER $USER
quote PASS $PASSWD
lcd /u03/scripts
cd /QDLS/SMSDTA
put $FILE
quit
END_SCRIPT
exit 0

SQL Script : /u03/scripts/counttsys.sql

select count(*) from authorizations where ltimestamp > sysdate – 5/1440 and I039_RESP_CD=’00’;

Main/Master Script : /u03/scripts/smsTSYS.sh

#!/bin/bash
current_time=$(date “+%Y%m%d%H%M%S”)
export ORACLE_HOME=/u03/app/oracle/product/12.1.0.2/payapps
cd /u03/scripts
$ORACLE_HOME/bin/sqlplus xyz/******@onlnprd << EOF
whenever sqlerror exit sqlcode
set serveroutput on size 1000000
set feedback off
set line 200
spool /u03/scripts/smscard.txt
@/u03/scripts/counttsys.sql
spool off
exit
EOF
rm -f /u03/scripts/SMSTSYS.TXT
touch /u03/scripts/SMSTSYS.TXT
chmod 777 /u03/scripts/SMSTYS.TXT
echo “$current_time,ACQUIRER,33578971,30116935″>/u03/scripts/output
cat /u03/scripts/output > /u03/scripts/SMSTSYS.TXT
####### AWK BLOCK #########
awk ‘NF=5’ /u03/scripts/smscard.txt > /u03/scripts/trimoutput
pattern=”$(awk ‘NR==5 {print;exit}’ /u03/scripts/trimoutput)”
if [[ “$pattern” -lt 3 ]]
then
sh /u03/scripts/newftptsys.sh
fi

The Final Script will generate an SMS file called SMSTYS.TXT in format with mobile numbers and send to the SMS ftp folder based on the count(*) output being less than threshold

20161129124001,ACQUIRER,33578971,30116935

Summary:

Using a little bit of logic and the magic of Shell scripts we created a customized SMS probe for a very critical business application. Even an Email alert can be configured using a similar mechanism. A bit of innovation goes a long way to solve a business problem  🙂